Before a student of Karate-Do learns free fighting, he or she practices clearly defined combinations with a partner.
Gohon Kumite: Five consecutive straight fist attacks to the head and body are blocked and finally countered.
Sanbon Kumite: Three successive linear attacks (fist and foot techniques toward the head and body) are blocked and finally countered.
Kihon Ippon Kumite: In each case a linear attack, consisting of fist and foot techniques towards the head and body is blocked and immediately countered.
Kaeshi Ippon Kumite: Interplay of attack and counter techniques
Okuri Ippon Kumite: Two consecutive fight sequences with and without announcement.
Jiyu Ippon Kumite: Simple arm and foot techniques, in a free fighting movement are blocked and immediately countered.
Happo-kumite: Attacks from multiple directions are blocked and countered.
Jiyu Kumite: Sparring (preform: Randori = playful practicing)
Shotokan karate abstains from full body contact. All techniques must be controlled and stopped before impact.